Carpenter Bees

Protect Your Home or Business From Carpenter Bees

The carpenter bee is one of the largest bees found in the United States. Though several different types of carpenter bees live throughout the U.S., Xylocopa virginica is the most prevalent species in New England and other eastern regions of the country.

Like other bee species that inhabit the area, carpenter bees facilitate the growth of vegetation by pollinating flowers and other plants. Carpenter bees are generalist pollinators that pollinate many different kinds of plants, but the beneficial insects often serve as particularly capable pollinators of vegetable crops like eggplant and tomatoes. As their common name suggests, carpenter bees are also capable of boring into wood and causing aesthetic, and sometimes even structural, damage to homes.

Picture of Carpenter Bee on Flower
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Appearance & Identification

What Do Carpenter Bees Look Like?
Carpenter bees resemble the widely recognizable bumble bee in appearance. Both types of bees grow to as long as an inch in size and have round, black bodies covered in stripes of yellowish hair. However, while bumble bees are hairy over the entire body, the abdomen of a typical carpenter bee remains hairless and has a glossy black sheen.

Males vs. Females

Carpenter bees also exhibit slight physical differences between males and females within the species. The head and face of adult male specimens feature white markings, while females have an entirely black head.

Habits/Habitat

Unlike the social bee species (bumble bees and honey bees), carpenter bees are solitary and do not establish large colonies nor live according to a caste system. The insects live up to their name by excavating galleries from trees and other wood structures to carve out sites for nesting and overwintering.

Taking advantage of their powerful jaws, or mandibles, female carpenter bees construct the galleries by selecting a suitable piece of wood, creating a distinctively round entrance hole, and drilling through the material to produce a tunnel. Carpenter bees then use chewed wood to create walls and partition the gallery into individual sections, each of which eventually houses an individual egg.

The eastern carpenter bee found in New England generally prefers to make galleries out of softer woods, such as cedar, cypress, fir, and pine. While females construct the galleries and lay the eggs, male carpenter bees are often seen hovering outside the nest site and chasing trespassers away.

Though males cannot sting, they defend the nest with vigor and frequently fly in the personal space of humans, commonly inciting undue panic. Only female carpenter bees have functional stingers, which the they rarely use.

Diet

What Do Carpenter Bees Eat?
Adult carpenter bees do not actually ingest the wood they excavate and instead feed on the nectar of flowers. Due to their large size relative to other bees, carpenter bees cannot fit into the openings of certain flowers and instead use their strong jaws to make a slit and access the nectar at other points on the plant. The excavating insects also combine pollen with regurgitated nectar to create a food source for newly hatched eggs and subsequent larvae to feed on through all the stages of development.

Reproduction

After mating with young males in the spring, female carpenter bees construct wood galleries and lay eggs within the resulting tunnel. Carpenter bees lay a single egg on top of the mixture of nectar and pollen in each section of the partitioned gallery.

Larvae hatch from the eggs and begin consuming the food source to gain the nourishment necessary for complete development. Like other bee species, carpenter bees develop into pupae after the larval stage and eventually become fully grown adults roughly seven weeks after hatching. Newly matured carpenter bees emerge from the excavated gallery during late summer to feed and return to the tunnel to overwinter through the cold New England winter.

Problems Caused by Carpenter Bees

While carpenter bees rarely sting or live in groups large enough to pose a dangerous threat to humans, the insects can cause problems by excavating galleries out of wood. Although trees often make adequate nesting sites, carpenter bees frequently lay eggs and overwinter in the wood of decks, outdoor furniture, and houses.

The excavating insects mainly create cosmetic damage by chewing entrance holes into the wood and staining the area below the entryway with excrement and pollen. However, carpenter bees can also cause structural damage when multiple generations of the insects inhabit and enlarge the same wood gallery over an extended period of time.

Signs of Infestation

Identifying Carpenter Bees in New England

The entrance hole is a telltale sign of carpenter bee activity. Entrance holes are roughly a half-inch in diameter and almost perfectly round. Carpenter bees may also leave yellowish or brownish stains of pollen and excrement in the vicinity of the entrance hole.

Males often hover, an action typically not performed by other bee species. In fact, if a large fuzzy bee is seen hovering under the eaves of a house, chances are the insect in question is a carpenter bee.

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Prevention

Prevention

One of the easiest ways to prevent carpenter bees from nesting is to reduce the attractiveness of the wood. As the flying insects generally prefer to excavate bare and untreated wood, New England residents should consider painting or staining exposed wood structures around the outside of the house.

Homeowners should also keep in mind that carpenter bees most often select softer woods for nesting and overwintering, making hardwoods perhaps a better choice for completing any kind of construction or project. Carpenter bees like to reuse previously excavated wood galleries, as well. Area residents should therefore locate and seal all entrance holes while making sure not to trap any carpenter bees inside, as the excavating insects will simply chew new tunnels and escape. For the best and safest results in managing and preventing carpenter bees, contact a professional pest control service.

Carpenter Bee Traps